Government: According to the constitution, Turkmenistan is a secular democratic and presidential republic. The government has three branches: Executive — President and the Council of Ministers, Legislative — Mejlis (Parliament), and Judicial — Supreme Court. The legal system is based on the civil law system. Turkmenistan’s date of independence from the Soviet Union is recognized as October 27, 1991. Turkmenistan’s declaration of “permanent neutrality” was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. Turkmenistan has 5 administrative subdivisions: Velayats (provinces) — Akhal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, and Mary. The capital is Ashgabat.
President – Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov
Foreign Minister – Rashid Meredov
Foreign Relations. The foreign policy of Turkmenistan is characterized by active participation of the country in the international initiatives aimed at finding ways to maintain the world’s safety and promote a sustainable socio-economic well-being of all the countries and their people. Priorities of Turkmenistan in the area of international relations are defined in the document entitled “The Basic Directions for Realization of Foreign Policy Strategy of Neutral Turkmenistan for 2008-2012″ and confirmed by the President of Turkmenistan on March 20th, 2008. Among the important aspects of Turkmen diplomacy are humanitarian and legal components of the state foreign policy. Politico-diplomatic measurement is realized through establishment and development of mutual relations of Turkmenistan with other states and close interaction with the international organizations. As of January 2009, Turkmenistan has established diplomatic relations with 127 countries, and is the full member of more than 40 international organizations. In 2007, the Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy was opened in Ashgabat.